Estonia is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. The territory of Estonia covers 45,227 km2(17,462 sq mi).Estonia’s latitudes is between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E.Estonia’s current president is Toomas Hendrik Ilves.

Estonia is a democratic parliamentary republic, with its capital and largest city being Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union, Eurozone, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Schengen Area. The Estonians are a Finnic people, and the official language, Estonian, is a Finno-Ugric language closely related to Finnish and the Sami languages, and distantly to Hungarian.

Estonia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. It ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012).Estonia is often described as one of the most wired countries in Europe.

Estonia is a member of the following organisations : League of Nations, has been a member of the United Nations, and of NATO,European Union. Estonia is also a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).Estonia has also signed the Kyoto Protocol. Estonia adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state.

Oil shale energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services, food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics, and transportation are key sectors of the economy.

Significant quantities of rare earth oxides are found in tailings accumulated from 50 years of uranium ore, shale and loparite mining at Sillamäe. The country currently exports around 3000 tonnes per annum, representing around 2% of world production.

Estonia exports machinery and equipment, wood and paper, textiles, food products, furniture, and metals and chemical products. Estonia also exports 1.562 million megawatt hours of electricity annually. Estonia imports machinery and equipment, chemical products, textiles, food products, and transportation equipment.Estonia imports 200 thousand megawatt hours of electricity annually.

Skype was written by Estonia-based developers Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, and Jaan Tallinn, who had also originally developed Kazaa. It is even claimed that Estonia has the most startups per person in the world.