Portugal is officially called: República Portuguesa and is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the most western country of mainland Europe and is bordered only by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres and is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. The republic also includes the Azores and Madeira.

The territory of modern Portugal has been invaded many times by the Celts, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigothic, Suebi Germanic and the Moors who made Portugal to be part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal became independent under the Christian Reconquista, whith Afonso Henriques as King of Portugal. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political and military powers to develop the sea route to India, discovered Brazil, west-African coast, and Cape of Good Hope.

Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world and has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France, Spain and Italy. Portugal is a member of the European Union, the Euro zone, and OECD.

Agriculture in Portugal is mostly medium-sized family-owned, however, the sector also includes intensive export-oriented agro businesses. The country produces a variety of crops and livestock, including tomatoes, citrus, vegetables, rice, corn, barley, olives, oilseeds, nuts, cherries, grapes, mushrooms, dairy products, poultry and beef, but also wine and especially Porto.

Portugal has a strong fishing sector and is the country with the highest fish consumption in Europe. Portugal is a minerals producer and is Europe’s leading copper producer. Portugal also produces: tin, tungsten and uranium. The country has vast iron and coal reserves.

Industry is diversified; Volkswagen and Peugeot Citroen produce cars and Embraer airplanes, electronics and textiles, to food, chemicals, cement and wood pulp. Major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded in the twenty-first century.

Portugal is among the 20 most visited countries in the world; receiving an average of 13 million foreigners. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power and the world’s largest solar power plant: the Moura Photovoltaic Power Station was established in the south.

The average year round temperature of Portugal is 20 °C, although some areas of Portugal have a significant higher 28 °C average temperature, which explains why it is a tourist destination.