Romania is a unitary semi-presidential republic located in Southeastern-Central Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine. It also borders Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova. It covers 238,391 square kilometers (92,043 sq. mi) and has a temperate-continental climate. With its 19.9 million inhabitants, it is the seventh most populous member of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth largest city in the EU. The official language is Romanian.
It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N, and longitudes 20° and 30° E.
The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north.
The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877.
It has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007.Romania had joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization.
According to IMF, the GDP per capita purchasing power parity grew from $14,875 in 2007 to an estimated $19,397 in 2014. Its GDP PPP in 2015 estimate is $403,579 billion with per capita income of $20,355.
Romania’s main exports are cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers).
Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, Romania was estimated to have the fourth fastest growing travel and tourism total demand in the world, with an estimated potential growth of 8% per year from 2007 to 2016.The number of tourist has been rising, reaching 3.5 million in the first half of 2014. Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.
Popular summer attractions of Mamaia and other Black Sea Resorts attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009.
Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. In the history of flight, Traian Vuia made the first airplane to take off on its own power and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coandă discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics. Victor Babeș discovered more than 50 types of bacteria; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin, while Emil Palade, received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine, while Costin Nenițescu developed numerous new classes of compounds in organic chemistry.